It is an animation technique that allows a physically manipulated object to move independently. The object moves a short distance, which is fixed by separately made frames, creating the illusion of movement when a series of frames are reproduced as a continuous sequence.
Long before modern animation, people from the Palaeolithic era gradually progressed through shadow games, dolls, flip books, magic flashlights, pinhole cameras, Chinese magic mirrors, and kaleidoscopes to simulate entertainment. Technological advances in the 19th and 20th centuries created a boom in the film industry and made modern animation possible. Only after more than 3 decades of improving the technique of Stop motion could it become an independent art form in itself.
There are many variants of this technique. Lynn Tomlinson
, known for her process of "painting" clay on glass, in which a thin layer of plasticine clay is thinly spread on a flat surface and then moved, frame by frame, to create a picturesque look. Tomlinson's "painting" with colored modelling clay on a light table resembles liquid oil paintings and stained glass with delicate and seemingly casual transitions from one frame to another.
William Kentridge, uses a single sheet to draw charcoal as a keyframe in which he selectively sketches and erases to depict uneven movements of time and change. The whole process is recorded on film and exhibited together with the finished works of art. This technique ensures the achievement of the palimpsest (Greek - parchment on which the original text was erased and a new one was written on top of it), which tries to claim that what cannot be stated and is therefore forgotten or partially remembered, but nevertheless is present.
There are many artists working in this technique, such as Tala Madani, Sun Xun, Natalie Jurberg, Martha Colburn, Kirsten Lepore, each of them uses their own materials and themes, but find it possible to express themselves in Stop Motion.